In 1880, Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered that certain crystals generate a charge when pressed. They deemed them piezo crystals, from the Greek for “press.” Piezoelectric crystals are transducers that turn mechanical energy into electricity. Conversely, they respond to electrical charges by expanding or contracting.
But traditional piezoelectric compounds are bulky, brittle and inefficient. They convert no more than 40 percent of mechanical energy to electricity. When subjected to an electrical field or current, they expand or contract, but only by tiny amounts.
Advanced Cerametrics piezoelectric fibers, on the other hand, are flexible. They weigh as little as two grams for a transducer that can generate 40 volts. They pick up a wider range of vibration frequencies, and generate 75 percent more power from those vibrations. And Advanced Cerametrics piezoelectric fibers outperform bulk piezos as electricity-to-motion transducers. They exert a stronger mechanical force over a larger range of motion at just 35 percent the weight. A two-gram active fiber composite strip can produce a blocking authority of 60 pounds!
Advanced Cerametrics manufactures is piezoelectric fibers of lead zirconate titanate, or PZT. Applications for PZT fibers fall into the two broad categories, energy harvesting or actuation. Specifically, a few opportunities stand out.
Most sensors are in environments were ambient waste mechanical energy is abundant, whether it’s inside an air duct or mounted on a motorized system. Advanced Cerametrics PZT fibers harvest that mechanical energy to recharge the batteries or power the sensors directly, without batteries.
Applications for auto-powered monitoring range from aerospace to automotive to home appliances to biomedicine.
The higher output power of Advanced Cerametrics piezoelectric fibers opens many opportunities to power electroluminescent lighting on bridge decks, signage and buoys, among other applications.
Advanced Cerametrics PZT composites turn motion into power and power into motion. Vibration damping uses both characteristics. When vibrations generate power, built-in circuitry relays the charge to a microprocessor, which measures the magnitude of the vibration and returns an amplified signal that either stiffens or relaxes the fiber actuators. They qualify as “smart systems” for their self-adjusting nature.
In one of the best-known applications of vibration damping is by Head Sport AG of Kennelbach, Austria. Head uses Advanced Cerametrics PZT fiber composites to reduce tennis racket vibration and ski chatter.
Advanced Cerametrics PZT fiber composites have a range of motion that opens entirely new vistas for energy-to-motion actuation. For example, piezoelectric fibers have been used to bend small aircraft wing flaps as much as 22 degrees without hydraulics.
Conventional bulk piezos move such tiny amounts that, when used as actuators, they typically require intermediating mechanisms that amplify movement. The greater range of motion of fiber piezos may allow engineers to skip these intermediating devices.
The technology is advancing fast. In our energy-hungry, battery-powered world, the19th-century piezoelectric materials have had little to contribute. But flexible piezoelectric fibers from Advanced Cerametrics offer 10 times the power output of older forms. They can be shaped in ways the user defines. They’re lighter, more sensitive and have greater actuation potential.
With these new fibers in the picture, we’re sure to see a rush of technologies that capitalize on their properties.
Drupal CMS (Content Management System) is open source software that can be easily leveraged to accommodate the needs of various corporations across the vast spectrum of public as well as private sectors. Since it is constantly updated by the Drupal community members, this CMS comes up with new innovations and Drupal consulting companies are constantly trying to increase Drupal adoption by creating meaningful web solutions to assists new stakeholders in new arenas.
Drupal CMS is remaining competitive in the CMS and website building market. Drupal is one of the most favorite CMS of the web developers because of its easy to use and robust features built on an open source platform. Since it has an intuitive to use web installer, it makes the process of publishing content very easy.
So, it is important that a website meaningful mobile solution is created in such a manner so that the content looks attractive and can easily be read. The user or the viewer should be attracted to the site so that they stay longer and browse the contents and give a look to it before they move out from the page.
The advantages of Drupal CMS for the web owner
Attractive and interactive website: Most websites usually contain lots of texts and less graphics so that the readers can derive proper information from the site. But reading and understanding of the information are at times difficult to understand, so extensive pictures or any related videos can help the site and make it more interesting. Drupal CMS makes this possible with only few clicks.
Easy To Maintain And Manage: Drupal CMS makes the website very easy to manage and the content can be easily updated or edited according to the requirements. With easy plugins and tabs to operate the CMS, any person can change the content without even having the expertise in using Drupal.
Dynamic Website: PHP is used for programming and this is compatible with most of the operating system like Mac OS X, Linux. The CMS converts all the contents into PHP when you upload your content, thereby making it SEO friendly.
Whether you are a newcomer or a veteran in the website building industry, having a website that caters to the company’s needs is very important.
These days we will find several Internet phone service providers across the world that provide this service at little or no cost and can help you reduce your phone bills drastically. Over the last decade, we have seen that the Internet and computer technology have changed the way people live, work and communicate. An Internet phone is one such revolution that has changed the way people talk with each other.
How does an Internet Phone work?
An Internet Phone uses Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), which converts the voice signal from the telephone to a digital signal. This digital signal travels over the Internet and is converted back at the other end to voice so that you can speak to anyone with a regular phone number. VoIP sends voice information in digital form in discrete packets rather than in the traditional circuit based protocols of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and helps you use your standard Internet connection to make phone calls worldwide at a very low or no cost.
How to make a call using the Internet Phone?
To make a call using an Internet Phone, you can subscribe to an Internet Phone Service. Besides this, you need to have a good speed Internet connection in place. Some Internet Phone services allow you to use a regular telephone, as long as you connect it to an adaptor while others allow you to make calls from a computer or a special VoIP phone that doesn’t require an additional adapter.
Depending upon the service that you choose, one way to make a call is to pick up your phone and dial the number, using an adaptor that connects to your Internet connection. Another way is to use a microphone headset plugged into your computer. In this case, the number is dialed using the keyboard and is routed through the cable modem.
In fact your computer need not even be turned on in case you are making calls with a phone and adaptor or special VoIP phone. It’s just that your Internet connection needs to be active. You can even use your computer while you are talking on the phone.
Choosing an Internet Phone Service
Depending upon the Internet Phone service that you choose, you might be limited only to other subscribers to the service, or you may be able to call any phone number, anywhere in the world. The call may be made to a local number, a mobile phone, a long distance number, or an international number. You can even utilize the service for a conference call, that is, to speak with more than one person at a time.
Different Internet Phone Service providers offer various plans for making calls. Some providers offer their service for free, normally only for calls to other subscribers to the service. While others charge for a long distance call to a number outside your calling area, similar to the existing, traditional telephone service. Still some other providers permit you to call anywhere at a flat rate for a fixed number of minutes.
Before choosing an Internet Service Provider you have to carefully look at his offering and balance it with your needs.
Many people familiar with Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) know that they can keep a computer or other electronic devices up and running during a total power failure or blackout for short period of time, but don’t know what else they do. Most UPS will also provide protection from voltage or electrical surges and sags (when the voltage drops below normal), as well as protection from the possibility of a shift in the electricity’s frequency.
UPS come in two varieties, standby and continuous, although standby versions are far more common and less expensive. A standby UPS allows the devices connected to it to run from the normal electrical connection until a loss of power is detected, at which point it quickly (in a matter of milliseconds) switches to the battery backup of the UPS. A continuous UPS always has the devices connected to it running off of battery power, while the batteries are recharged by the normal electrical connection.
UPS are sold in terms of their capacity, in terms of VA (voltage multiplied by amperage). This implies that devices connected to the UPS can draw a maximum of so much amperage at a specific voltage. A run time after a power failure is also generally specified for a UPS based on a full load being placed on the device.
Selecting a UPS needs to be based on the intended use. A smaller unit with 600VA would be adequate for powering a typical desktop computer, monitor, and smaller peripherals such as a printer and lighting for what they rate as 15-23 minutes at full load. If multiple systems need to be powered, or perhaps there are plans for future expansion that will add to the power demands, a larger unit such as 1500VA may be more appropriate. The first two units are intended to be set in close proximity to the devices to be powered, perhaps on the floor behind a desk.
No matter the application, sizing a UPS may seem overwhelming. One manufacturer, APC, has created a handy UPS Selector Application which will take some of the guess work out of choosing the right UPS for any particular application.
There are advantages and disadvantages factor on everything that can be used as consideration in determining whether we use it or not. Here are some of advantages and disadvantages from internet phone service that you should consider before deciding to use it or not.
The advantages of using an Internet Phone Service
The biggest advantage of using an Internet Phone is that you can make cheap phone calls as you are utilizing an existing data network that is the Internet. Moreover since VoIP is digital, it offers features and services that are not available with a traditional phone. It gives you the flexibility to combine phone calls with business data and offers value added features like integration with software on your computer.
The Internet Phone also provides you with the ability to be mobile as you can take your phone anywhere in the world. Besides this, it provides you access to features like voice mail, caller ID, call conferencing, call forwarding etc.
Despite the numerous advantages that an Internet phone offers, there are some disadvantages to utilizing the service. First, an Internet Phone is dependent on power. Your current phone runs on power that is provided over the line from the central office, so even if your power goes out, your phone connection still works.
With an Internet phone, you cannot use your phone service in case there is a power failure. Unlike using the traditional public switched telephone network (PSTN) technology, that is dependent on a point-to-point connection, the Internet Phone utilizes the Internet and its web-like, multi-link network. Therefore if a traditional PSTN circuit phone line is down or cut for some reason, you will be unable to make a call.
With Internet Phone service, if a specific link is down, the call will just be routed over one of the many other routing options that the Internet provides to still complete the call. There have been many recent natural and man-made disasters, where Internet Phone Service, was the only available and working service – as both PSTN lines and mobile cellular towers were rendered inoperable.
In early years of Internet Phone, the service suffered from issues of “delay” which causes the problem of “echo” and “talk overlap”. These initial Internet Phone Service offerings were susceptible to all the problems normally associated with home Internet connections like latency, jitter and packet loss. Due to all these factors phone conversations can sometimes become distorted, garbled or lost. In the last few years, with the improvements to the Internet backbone, broadband technologies and VoIP protocols and codecs, most of these issues have been corrected